A User’s Guide to Vehicle Automation Modes

Vehicle Automation Modes. Image CC BY 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Woman driving with both hands on the wheel.
  • Driving: Human
  • Driving Safety: Human
  • Other Safety: Human
Woman hands off the steering wheel. Eyes on the road monitoring the vehicle
  • Driving: Vehicle
  • Driving Safety: Human
  • Other Safety: Human
Man reading with eyes off the road as vehicle performs driving tasks
  • Driving: Vehicle
  • Driving Safety: Vehicle
  • Other Safety: Human
No human behind the wheel. Vehicle is driving and is completely capable of operation with no human monitoring.
  • Driving: Vehicle
  • Driving Safety: Vehicle
  • Other Safety: Vehicle
  • Supervised: Human monitors and takes over if needed.
  • Automated: Human can ignore driving, but ensures other aspects of vehicle safety.
  • Autonomous: No human involvement needed to ensure safety.
  • Supervised: The human driver is responsible for safety unless the vehicle does something dangerous that is beyond a reasonable human driver capacity to intervene.
  • Automated: The human driver is not responsible for driving errors, but is responsible for non-driving aspects of safety such as passenger safety, proper cargo loading, and post-crash situation management.
  • Autonomous: There is no human driver to blame for mistakes.

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